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Dissertation Distance Learning 1990 Onward

With respect to educational technology, the authors list commonly-used alternatives such as technology-enhanced learning TELdigital technologies, instructional technology, blended learning, online learning, digital learning, while Wheeler identifies the use of TEL, e-learning and digital learning.

Finally, in addition to the aforementioned concept map, the TEL e-leadership framework developed by Jameson Fig. Overall, the search resulted in the following initial results Table 1. A total of results were screened based on title, keywords and abstract where available.

The results from all searches were first winnowed down to exclude those not covering leadership or related concepts at all. A second winnowing excluded results which were considered off-topic, dealing with schools, the health sector, gaming or information systems. The Google Scholar search proved the most challenging, as despite the inclusion of higher education and an attempt to filter out books and schools, dissertation distance learning 1990 onward still appeared in the results, alongside results pertaining to business.

Another issue with the Google Scholar search was in bringing up results which had clearly not been peer-reviewed and the impossibility of defining this in the search criteria. The final results, after identifying duplicates obtained via different searches and across the different databases, are as follows:.

Forty-nine articles, 48 of which we can be confident have been peer-reviewed. Identified via the Google Scholar search, its status was checked in ERIC which only produced it as dissertation distance learning 1990 onward result after including non-reviewed papers in the search. As such viewpoints or opinion papers are not always peer-reviewed, the status of all results obtained in this category was double-checked in ERIC, confirming that they had indeed been peer-reviewed.

The non-empirical studies theoretical articles and opinion pieces were included in this literature review to give a fuller picture of the type of research being published in the field of e -leadership for technology-enhanced learning in higher education.

More specifically, theoretical articles can provide insights into how scholars are approaching the question from a broader angle, and opinion pieces can give insights into the preoccupations of leaders and other stakeholders as they reflect on challenges and leadership practice from a strategic or organisational perspective.

Figure 3 below presents the number and type of results per year of publication. The following three tables present a summary of the results, organised into the three categories. The tables provide the reference of the publication, information about location, population, context and methodology together with a summary of the findings Tables 23and 4. From the three aforementioned tables, the empirical studies were analysed from the perspectives of geographical location, methodologies used and populations studied in relation to leadership, in order to answer the corresponding secondary research questions indicated earlier.

Dissertation argument analysis identified the leadership theories or terms associated with leadership for the overall results. In terms of location, the spread across geographical regions was reasonably equitable, as shown in Table 5 below:.

Five of the qualitative approaches were presented as case studies, as was one of the mixed methods studies. It should be noted here that the latter Livingstone, relied solely on an online survey and included personal criticism of the institution with value-laden language.

A further case study Brown, makes no explicit reference to the methodology used and it was not possible to determine this from a detailed reading of the article.

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If we now compare the methodologies used to the populations studied, we find that nine of the ten holistic multi-stakeholder approaches used or included qualitative methods Dissertation about distance learning 1990 present 6. The remaining studies were distributed among journals focusing on science and technology education 3media education 1education and teaching 1productivity and performance 1. In particular Van Wart, Roman, Wang, and Liu propose widening the notion of e-leadership from leading in virtual spaces to include topics write huckleberry finn act of 1990 dissertation distance learning, recommending and supporting the implementation of ICT for an organisation, and propose a framework for connecting the different literatures in the fields of e-leadership and technology adoption.

Boyd and Sampson reflect on initiatives aimed toward developing staff digital confidence, an approach which is also found in Brown et al. Of significant interest is the approach proposed by McCutcheon This framework is organised into seven dimensions around the central aim of delivering the service: demonstrating personal qualities, working with others, managing services, improving services, setting direction, creating the vision, delivering the strategy.

In reviewing research on Quality and Leadership of Online Education, Gupton examines the need for leadership as the online delivery of education develops, dissertation about distance learning 1990 present uses emotional and value-laden language. Mukerjee explores the concept of organisational agility, while Murphy formulates an argument for the recognition of the importance of the mid-level professional manager in transitioning bottom-up to institute-wide TEL initiatives.

The six opinion pieces identified in the literature view are presented briefly here to provide a picture of the preoccupations of HE leaders and other stakeholders who are taking an interest in the question of leadership for TEL in HE. Beaudoin presents an overview of current issues related to distance learning in HE, identifying central questions, issues, challenges and opportunities to be addressed by decision makers, as well as key attributes of effective leaders, which can be classified as leadership style and vision transformational, change-management rather than technology as the priority, tolerance for ambiguity and risk ; critical assessment of situations, using data, resisting fashion, focus on both micro and macro perspectives ; pedagogical sound knowledge of distance education and theory, advocacy, decide and act as learner-centered educator ; networking to share ideas, strategies and resources.

Based on personal experience as an HE leader, Moccia presents a six-point strategy to help HE leaders reinvent their industry: be global, financially sustainable, value-added, technological-oriented, a strategic local partner, substance more important than form. Similarly, Persichitte builds on personal experience to present TEL leadership recommendations terms of context, behaviours and skills.

Chow gives a detailed and honest account of the adaptation necessary in his move from Dotcom leadership to a HE environment, in particular the need to develop systems thinking and to focus on the human aspects, bringing stakeholders together to discuss issues and find solutions. While the purpose of this paper is not to provide a comprehensive review of leadership theory itself, it is still important to look more closely at which leadership theories and concepts are being referred to in the results identified in this literature review.

As can be seen from the graph below Fig. Stewart provides a detailed account of the evolutions in transformational leadership theory, tracing it back to its origins in the seminal work of Burns who identified two types of leadership: transactional and transformational. In this case there is a search for mutually beneficial solutions with an increase in commitment and capacity to achieve mutual purposes.

Both resource and agency are considered to emerge and exist at all organisational levels. The different understandings of e-leadership in relation to TEL are discussed later in this article.

The results also cite other concepts associated with leadership which are not necessarily theories in their own right: top-down, bottom-up, middle-out, formal, informal, structured, supportive, passive the latter coming under the umbrella of FRLT. The following chart Fig. Other theories not directly related to the field of leadership are used to shed light on the question.

Van Wart et al. Brown and Shieladevi and Rahman take a change management perspective. Other theories taken from the management field include learning organisations Trevitt et al. Perhaps the most significant observation here is that none of the empirical studies actually refer explicitly to e-leadership. We can thus conclude that there is a distinct lack of empirical research in e-leadership for TEL in HE.

In those results which did cite e-leadership, the most widely used theories associated with e-leadership were again distributed and transformational, as can be seen in Fig. This exploratory literature review was conducted in order to determine the extent to which the concept of e-leadership has taken off a lens through which to study leadership for technology-enhanced learning in higher education.

Both the prevalence and the relevance of the use of this concept are discussed below. Finally, recommendations for further research are formulated to bridge the gaps identified by the interrelated secondary research questions of populations studied, methodologies applied and levels of analysis, as well as in terms of inter disciplinarity.

As we have already noted, none of the empirical studies identified in the search actually cite e-leadership, although dissertation about distance learning 1990 present is a certain amount of interest among the theoretical papers. We might conclude that e-leadership for technology-enhanced learning in higher education has not taken off as a field of research, but before jumping to such a conclusion it is worth taking a closer look at the concept of e-leadership itself.

We can take the teaching and learning process to be mediated by AIT in TEL, and therefore see that the application of e-leadership theory is relevant to the topic of leading in online environments Phelps, However, the leadership interventions, behaviours and attitudes of higher education governance and academic leaders in strategic thinking and decision-making around TEL are themselves not necessarily mediated by technology, although they may be.

One perspective which shows promise in this respect is that put forward by Van Wart dissertation about distance learning 1990 present al. This definition could in fact apply to leadership for change in general, although certain components of it are reflected in the some of the main trends identified in the present study see also Fig.

This would thus not have been useful for our literature review at this stage, but should be included in future searches alongside the combinations already used. This paper identifies four main gaps in the current research.

These can be expressed in terms of populations studied, methodologies used, the disciplines to which these studies are related and the application of models and frameworks. The first gap is defined as a lack of research at a holistic level, linking leadership to strategy and organisation. If we are looking to support HE leaders in developing strategic thinking, vision and action to improve the way technology is used for teaching and learning, then the focus of research needs to go beyond the analysis of leadership at project level, with more empirical studies addressing the question of leadership for TEL from a holistic, multi-stakeholder perspective at institutional level.

The six results identified in this literature review would benefit from comparison with further studies taking such an approach to build up a much more comprehensive literature base. Bridging the second gap involves employing robust research designs to take into account the complexity of such a holistic approach.

Such an approach should also contribute to reducing researcher bias and avoid the dissertation about distance learning 1990 present which Roushan et al.

The third gap concerns a distinct lack of interdisciplinary research. Given that this research takes place at the intersection of different disciplinary fields - education technology and management studies - insights dissertation distance learning 1990 onward both fields are required. It is thus recommended that interdisciplinary teams collaborate on such research in order to reinforce synergies and ensure the best possible understanding of both worlds.

In this respect, much can be learnt from the HE leadership and management literature, for example H. Further efforts to publish in education management journals should also be made, in order to increase the awareness of issues relating to the integration of technology for teaching and learning at HE governance level. The final gap concerns the need to test existing models and frameworks through application in empirical studies. It would thus appear timely to test the validity of these frameworks in the field, through case studies focusing on qualitative contextual data as well as quantitative analysis.

Specific research lines should thus be fostered at meso institutional level, focusing on values, strategy, organisation and leadership interactions, while at the same time taking into account macro factors such as the economy and public policy, as well as teaching and learning at the micro level.

Attention should be paid to making explicit any underlying assumptions about TEL, on the part of both the researchers themselves and the populations being studied Bayne, In other words, what formal and informal learning do they engage in and what influences their world views with respect to the changing technology landscape and its impact on teaching and learning?

The question of how we define e-leadership also needs to be addressed. There are of course limitations to this study in that it is intended as an update to that carried out by Jameson and thus covers a relatively short period Further regular searches will be carried out, including citation analysis. Finally, we argue for more collaboration between the disciplinary fields of educational technology and educational management.

The sun may not yet have fully dawned on e-leadership as the 5 th age of educational technology research in higher education, but there is both the potential and the need for this age to emerge at the intersection of these disciplines. Akcil, U. Alvesson, M. Waiting for Godot: Eight major problems in the odd field of leadership studies. Leadership Arena, M. People and Strategy39 2 Ashbaugh, M. Quarterly Review of Distance Education14 2 Avolio, B.

The Leadership Quarterly11 4 E-leadership: Re-examining transformations in leadership source and transmission. The Leadership Quarterly25 1 Barber, M. London: Institute for Public Policy Research. Bass, B. Full range leadership development: Manual for the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire.

Mind Garden. Bates, A. Teaching in a Digital Age.

Dissertation distance learning 1990 onward

Managing technology in higher education: Strategies for transforming teaching and learning. Hoboken: Wiley. Baydas, O. Educational technology research trends from to Scientometrics1 Bayne, S. Beaudoin, Essays on death. Belshaw, D. The Essential Elements of Digital Literacies.

Bervell, B. Bogler, R. Transformational and Passive Leadership. Bolden, R. Distributed leadership in organizations: A review of theory and research. Distributed dissertation distance learning 1990 onward in higher education: Rhetoric and reality. Boyd, V. Foundation versus innovation: developing creative education practitioner confidence in the complex blended learning landscape.

Boyer, A. Guidelines for governance of HE institutions, D-Transform. Brown, C. Brown, M. Libraries and the Academy14 3 Brown, S. Large-scale innovation and change in UK higher education. Burnette, D. Negotiating the mine field: Strategies for effective dissertation about distance learning 1990 present education administrative leadership in higher education institutions. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education16 3 Burns, J. Caruth, G. Chow, A. Ciabocchi, E.

Online Learning20 3 Cifuentes, G. Media Education Research Journal23 Clarke, N. Model of complexity leadership development. Human Resource Development International16 2 Craig, R. College disrupted: The great unbundling of higher education. New York: St. Creswell, J. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Service innovation in a digital world. McKinsey Quarterly. Davis, F.

Davis, H. Leadership Literacies for Professional Staff in Universities. This study examined the introduction, adaptation, usage, and acceptance of lexical borrowings in the Colombian online newspaper El Tiempo from to While building on the foundation of prior research of sociolinguistic Hope, Sandrine University of Alabama Libraries This dissertation explores the coming-of-age processes of characters that are perceived as marginal as a result of migratory experiences involving the Caribbean and the United States.

Through the theoretical frameworks of Grassmann, Elizabeth University of Alabama Libraries Abstract This dissertation examines how women were represented in nineteenth-century Argentine literature through the evaluation of the societal functions of women in literary texts and by investigating what power women This study delves into selected works of the Quebecois writer Claude Jasmin that were written between and In each novel, the narrator and his father are manifestations of the same individuals; the narrator Throughout the dissertation about distance learning 1990 present century, Central America has experienced widespread violence despite the signing of the Peace Agreements during the s.

The existing conflict has inevitably influenced the literature of this region Boris, Marta University of Alabama Libraries Matu, Florina University of Alabama Libraries This dissertation aims to explore a variety of representations of shame and guilt in twentieth and twenty-first century Algerian works written by women.

More specifically, I argue that in three recent autofictional works Beard, Caroline E. In less than a decade since the onset of the global economic crisis, more than 2 million people have left Spain in search of work and the possibility of a livable existence. Many of these economic exiles are young and Login Register.

September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Bower and Kimberly P. Archived from the original on Retrieved June 24, [last update]. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved 17 July Canadian Journal of Educational Communication, 21 2 The Atlantic Monthly.

Archived from the original on 8 March Paul The Evolution of American Educational Technology. Galanter ed.

Dissertation And Distance Learning

The Milwaukee Journal. Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 19 July Archived from the original on July 18, Note that the date shown "c. The curator confirms that according to the accompanying documentation the approximate date of production of the Grundy Tutor was and the online caption will be amended. Sim In Chapman Pincher ed. Daily Express Science Annual, No.

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Dissertation about distance learning 1990 present

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