Thesis on coal gasification

Algae have been identified as suitable alternative feedstocks for third generation biofuels due to their fast growth rates and non-competitiveness with land for food crops. Hydrothermal processing of algae is an appropriate conversion route as it allows the processing of wet feedstock thus removing the energy penalty of drying. In this study, supercritical water gasification was used for i the hydrothermal processing of macroalgae for the production of gaseous fuel - mainly biomass gasification phd thesis and methane - and ii the upgrading of the process water from hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae for hydrogen production for biocrude hydrotreating.

The supercritical water gasification SCWG of the four macroalgae species investigated Saccharina latissima, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, and Alaria esculenta produced a gas that mainly consisted of hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide. Dai, et al. Lu, Z. Wu, et al. Lee, J. Kim, H. Lee, T. Park and S. Furthermore, the plant - installed in a closed hall due to the cold climate - emitted so much CO and other toxic gases that the company had to stop its operation.

On behalf of GTZ gasifiers at six locations in India were visited in All plants seemed to be constantly in use, providing an electricity output of 60 - kW. Mainly rice husk and wood were used as fuel. Plants with specially designed gas Otto engines worked exclusively with producer gas as fuel.

However they needed an additional small electric generator for the start-up phase. All of these plants had a sophisticated gas cleaning system. However, the plants did not come close to fulfilling any European safety and pollution standards [6]. Unfortunately no detailed data is available on the efficiency and economics of these plants. A recent, as yet unpublished study from southern Sri Lanka reports on a gasification project that has already been coal gasification phd thesis well for more than one year.

The 12 kW plant provides elec-tricity for 27 families, considerably reducing their consumption coal gasification phd thesis kerosene. On average each family saves about EUR 0. However, the installation of the machinery took a long social injustice research paper and required a great deal of know-how.

The operation of the plant is laborious and requires a committed, permanently employed operator. Every day the filters have to be cleaned coal gasification phd thesis once a month the whole plant has to be disassembled and cleaned of tar and soot.

The families pay a monthly fee of EUR 1. But this is just enough to cover the running costs.

Biomass Gasification for Electricity and Fuels, Large Scale

The initial investment costs were cov-ered by the project. All this indicates that commercial operation of such a plant would not be possible in the given environment. Furthermore, compared to other renewable energy technologies gasification proved to be expensive. Obviously the running costs are considerably higher as well [7]. Another project in Sri Lanka with a locally produced gasifier supported by a German emer-gency aid organisation had a similar experience. It took more than one year of intense modi-fication and adaptation to get the tar and soot problem under control.

Due to the wet gas cleaning system the project had a number of problems in the beginning with high quantities of condensates and liquid waste. A dry gas cleaning system solved this problem and by the gasifier had been working well for more than one year.

However, the local population can hardly pay the running costs and it would be impossible to finance the investment costs by the revenues from electricity sales. As this project was implemented in the gasification phd thesis of the Tsunami relief, the most important benefit of this gasifier power plant is seen in its incentive for local reforestation.

While in Asia many gasifier plants are or have been in operation, there seems to be little on the gasification phd thesis in Africa. In the early s, a gasification plant based on rice coal gasification phd thesis was opera-tional in Molodo, Mali. It was the result of a joint cooperation between Mali, Germany, and China. However, the performance of the plant was rather mixed and a Chinese technician had to supervise it constantly to guarantee smooth performance.

In: 17th European biomass conference and exhibition, Hamburg Google Scholar.

Gasification phd thesis

In: Proceedings: 2nd International conference on renewable enrgy gas technology, Barcelona, Spain, p 4 Google Scholar. ThermalNet Newsletter, issue 1, pp Google Scholar. Rauch R Developments in biofuels of biomass steam gasification. In: Gasification summitPrag Google Scholar. Hedenskog M The GobiGas-project.

International Journal of Energy Research, in press. Metadata Show full item record. Abstract Recycling carbon dioxide is of prime importance due to the harmful effects on the atmosphere. Using CO2 for gasification serves a dual purpose i. Therefore, this research work focuses on exploring the application of carbon dioxide as coal gasification phd thesis gasifying agent in gasification of pine.

Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the importance of this process, motivation behind the study and a sneak peek into the objectives of the research. Preliminary characterization studies on oil-palm fronds biomass showed that, it has a higher potential as a gasification feedstock.

However, no biomass gasification phd thesis study has been recorded on gasification of oil-palm wastes. In order to investigate the performance and gasification characteristics of this feedstock, a downdraft gasifier of capacity 50 kW, designed and manufactured for the purpose of this study, is used. In addition, study of pyrolysis characteristics is carried out using fixed bed activation reactor.No detrimental effect was observed from ash deposition, which was dry and easily removed.

A fluid model mapped temperature distribution, showing good correlation with validation measurements and supporting the observation that wall temperature greatly affected particle conversion.

Particle residence times were inversely proportional to particle diameter and density. High ash biochar showed greater conversion than coal. Economic analysis revealed the system would be most competitive on an existing site with available feedstocks and steam. A longer reactor would increase time for homogeneous reactions to play a greater role. With further development this technology has potential to produce hydrogen competitively on a commercial scale.

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Gasification Burning of Biomass - White Rose eTheses Online

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Supercritical Water Gasification Of Algae

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Coal gasification phd thesis

Have fun and enjoy academic life!! There are different biomass conversion routes to methane depending on the water content of the biomass feed. In this configuration there is no heat integration possible between the two process stages. In this thesis, a new gasification concept is investigated, termed self-gasification, that overcomes, inter alia, the issue of heat integration.

The focus of the present biomass gasification phd thesis lies on process evaluation and study of the influence of biomass ashes on the aforementioned reactions. For that reason alone, results presented in this thesis are gasification phd thesis limited to the self-gasification concept where methane is the final product, but give valuable information for other biomass gasification processes as proofreading. Subjects such as gasification under pressure, methane formation and the effect of naturally occurring ash in biomass are dealt with in this thesis.

The concept is now ready to be studied in an integrated bench-scale unit for further evaluation. AB - Biomass is very promising as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources because it is a renewable source that contains carbon, an essential building block for gaseous and liquid fuels.

Pavlina Nanou. Abstract Biomass is very promising as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources because it is a renewable source that contains carbon, an essential building block for gaseous and liquid fuels.

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