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Writing a scientific research paper

By looking at only the Introduction and Conclusions sections, a reader should have a good idea of what the researcher has investigated and discovered even though the specific details of how the work was done would not be known. In this section you should give credit to people who have helped you with the research or with writing the paper.

If your work has been supported by a grant, you would also give credit for that in this section. This section lists, in alphabetical order by author, all published information that was referred to anywhere in the text of the paper.

Writing the scientific research paper

It provides the readers with the information needed should they want to refer to the original literature on the general problem. Note that the Literature Cited section includes only those references that were actually mentioned cited in the paper. Any other information that the researcher may have read about the problem but did not mention in the paper is not included in this section. This is why the section is called "Literature Writing the scientific research paper instead of "References" or "Bibliography".

The system of citing reference material in scientific journals varies with the particular journal. The method that you will follow is the "author-date" system. Listed below are several examples of how citations should be presented in the text of your paper. The name s of the author s and year of publication are included in the body of the text. Sentence structure determines the placement of the parentheses. One author : 'Scott's model fails to Two authors : 'Libby and Libby show Three or more authors : 'Roche et al.

Entries in the Literature Cited section are listed alphabetically by author s and chronologically for papers by the same author s. The following citations illustrate the details of punctuation and order of information for a journal article, book, Internet source, and your laboratory packet.

Schneider, M. Occurrence of indoleacetic acid in the bryophytes. Stebbins, G. Processes of Organic Evolution. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey. Smithsonian Institution. Colby Biology Department. Salt Tolerance in Phaseolus vulgaris. In: Introduction to Biology: Organismal Biology. Generally, most references will be to the primary literature i. Popular literature and the Internet should be used sparingly and with caution. Other sources such as book chapters and pamphlets typically have their own specific citation formats.

If necessary, be sure to find out what these formats are and use them appropriately. Council of Biology Editors, Writing a scientific research paper. This guide is based on a paper by Gubanich, A. Writing the scientific paper in the investigative lab. Teacher, 39 1 : Examples from the scientific literature that illustrate material in various sections of a scientific paper. Authors often use the discussion to describe armenian genocide essay their work suggests and how it relates to other studies.

In this section, authors can anticipate and address any possible objections to their work. The discussion section is also a place where authors can suggest areas of improvement for future research.

The acknowledgments tell you what people or institutions in addition to the tourism phd thesis contributed to the work. In reading the acknowledgments, you can see what sources provided financial support for the study. You might want to know an industry group or the federal government funded the study. The title will help you to writing scientific research paper if an article is interesting or relevant for your project.

Angel Borja draws on his extensive background as an author, reviewer and editor to give advice on preparing the manuscript author's viewthe evaluation process reviewer's view and what there is to hate or love in a paper editor's view. This article is the second in the series. The first article was: " Six things to do before writing your manuscript. His main topic of investigation is marine ecology, and has published more than contributions, from which are in over 40 peer-reviewed journals, through his long career of 32 years of research.

During this time he has investigated in multiple topics and ecosystem components, having an ample and multidisciplinary view of marine research. When you organize your manuscript, the writing the scientific research paper thing to consider is that the order of sections will be very different than the order of items on you checklist.

Next, I'll review each step in more detail. But before you set out to write a paper, there are two important things you should do that will set the groundwork for the entire process. Finally, keep in mind that each publisher has its own style guidelines and preferences, so always consult the publisher's Guide for Authors. Remember that "a figure is worth a thousand words. Your data are the driving force of the paper, so your illustrations are critical!

How do you decide between presenting your data as tables or figures? Whatever your choice is, no illustrations should duplicate the information described elsewhere in the manuscript. If you are using writing the scientific research paper, each must have a scale marker, or scale bar, of professional quality in one corner.

In photographs and figures, use color only when necessary when submitting to a print publication. If writing a scientific research paper line styles can clarify the meaning, never use colors or other thrilling effects or you will be charged with expensive fees. Of course, this does not apply to online journals. For many journals, you can submit duplicate figures: one in color for the online version of the journal and pdfs, and another in black and white for the hardcopy journal Figure 4.

Another common problem is the misuse of lines and histograms. Lines joining writing the scientific research paper only can be used when presenting time series or consecutive samples data e. However, when there is no connection between samples or there is not a gradient, you must use histograms Figure 5.

Sometimes, fonts are too small for the journal. You must take this into account, or they may be illegible to readers Figure 6. This section writing a scientific research paper article vocabulary the question of how the problem was studied. If your paper is proposing a new method, you need to include detailed information so a knowledgeable reader can reproduce the experiment. However, do not repeat the details of established methods; use References and Supporting Materials to indicate the previously published procedures.

Broad summaries or key references are sufficient. Reviewers will criticize incomplete or incorrect methods descriptions and may recommend rejection, because this section is critical in the process of reproducing your investigation. In this way, all chemicals must be identified. Do not use proprietary, unidentifiable compounds. Present proper control experiments and statistics used, again to make the experiment of investigation repeatable.

List the methods in the same order they will appear in the Results section, in the logical order in which you did the research:.

Again, look at the journal's Guide for Authors, but an ideal length for a manuscript is 25 to 40 pages, double spaced, including essential data only. Here are some general guidelines:. This section responds to the question "What have you found?

The results should be essential for discussion. However, remember that most journals offer the possibility of adding Supporting Materials, so use them freely for data of secondary importance. In this way, do not how to write a comparison essay to "hide" data in the hope of saving it for a later paper.

You may lose evidence to reinforce your conclusion. If data are too abundant, you can use those supplementary materials. Use sub-headings to keep results of the same type together, which is easier to review and read.

Number these sub-sections for the convenience of internal cross-referencing, but always taking into account the publisher's Guide for Authors. For the data, decide on a logical order that tells a clear story and makes it and easy to understand.

Generally, this will be in the same order as presented in the methods section. An important issue is that you must not include references in this section; you writing scientific research paper presenting your results, so you cannot refer to others here. If you refer to others, is because you are discussing your results, and this must be included in the Discussion section.

Here you must respond to what the results mean. Probably it is the easiest section to write, but the hardest section to get right. This is because it is the most important section of your article.

Writing a Research Paper

In this case the label Figure 1 etc. The caption uses regular sentence capitalization. The figures themselves follow, one per page. Print Email. Page Margins 1" on all sides top, bottom, left, right 1" on all sides top, bottom, left, right Font pt. Times Roman or Courier. Note that these citations should not be limited to refereed journal articles e.

Collura et al. Schulman At the end of the introduction you must summarize the paper by reciting the section headings. In this paper, we discuss scientific research section 2scientific writing section 3 and scientific publication section 4and draw some conclusions section 5. Scientific Research The purpose of science is to get paid for doing fun stuff if you're not a good enough programmer to write computer games for a living Schulman et al. Nominally, science involves discovering something writing scientific research paper about the universe, but this is not really necessary.You don't necessarily have to include all the data you've gotten during the semester.

This isn't a diary. Use appropriate methods of showing data. Don't try to manipulate the data to make it look like you did more than you actually did. If you present your data in a table or graph, include a title describing what's in the table "Enzyme activity at various temperatures", not "My results". For graphs, you should also label the x and y axes. Don't use a table or graph just to be "fancy". If writing scientific research paper can summarize the information in one sentence, then a table or graph is not necessary.

Writing a scientific research paper

Highlight the most significant results, but don't just repeat what you've written in the Results section. How do these results relate to the original question?

Do the data support your hypothesis? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? If your results were unexpected, try to explain why.

Is there another way to interpret your results? What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results? How do y our results fit into the big picture? End with a one-sentence summary of your conclusion, emphasizing why it is relevant. This section is optional.

You can thank those who either helped with the experiments, or made other important contributions, such as discussing the protocol, commenting on the manuscript, or buying you pizza. There are several possible ways to organize this section. Here is one commonly used way:. In the text, cite the literature in the appropriate places:. Scarlet thought that the gene was present only in yeast, but it has since been identified in the platypus Indigo and Mauve, and wombat Magenta, et al.

In the References section list citations in alphabetical order. Indigo, A. Queer place for qwerty: gene isolation from the platypus. Science Magenta, S. Wombat genetics. In: Widiculous Wombats, Violet, Q. Originality disclaimer Ultius, Inc. This may be due to software failure, indexing issues with Copyscape, unpublished offline content or human error. In the case that your custom writing order is not original, we history essay topics be more than happy to have a different writer re-write it or provide you with a full refund.

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WRITING A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ARTICLE

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